Jews lived in Rudnik nad Sanem from the second half of the sixteenth century to the Second World War. They have significantly contributed to the development of crafts and trade, including wickerwork. Before the First World War, 1200 Jews lived in the city, and before the Second World War about 805 (about 27% of the total population of Rudnik nad Sanem).

In the interwar period, Jews had two synagogues (one brick and one wooden), a religious school Cheder, a religious school for girls Bet Yaakov, a bathhouse (mikveh), two cemeteries (kirkuts) from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.  The following organizations were active as well: a branch of the Central Union of Jewish Craftsmen, an organization of Jewish workers Histadrut, Zionist organizations: Mizrachi, Hechaluc, Poalej Zion, youth organizations: Hashomer Hatzair and the scout union Akiba, Hatchiya Association and Perets Social and Cultural Association. In addition, there were: Hatchija library, Makabi football team (Maccabi) and the Jewish Cyclists' Club. The Jewish community in terms of material situation was diverse. The town square was inhabited by middle-income and wealthy Jewish families, while the streets adjacent to the market (e.g. Wałowa, Kasowa) were inhabited by poorer families.  

On the thirteenth of September 1939. The Germans entered Rudnik nad Sanem, burned synagogue, mikveh, Cheder, several Jewish houses and murdered several dozen Jews. The remaining Jews were deported across the San River to the Soviet zone. In 1940, the Germans destroyed tombstones (matzevahs) from two Jewish cemeteries. The Germans used the destroyed matzevahs to pave the roads. 

Some of the Jews deported to the Soviet zone later died of hunger and disease in Russia and Kazakhstan. After the German aggression against Russia in 1941, some of the Jews of Rudnik were murdered in Lwów, Stanisławów, Brzeżany and other cities of today's western Ukraine. Those who remained were murdered in the vicinity of Rudnik (in Ulanów, Krzeszów, Jarocin) and in the death camp in Bełżec or on the way to Bełżec. Jews from Rudnik, who emigrated in the interwar period to Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, were deported to various ghettos in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Latvia, from where they were sent to concentration camps in Auschwitz, Majdanek, Stutthof (Sztutowo), Kulmhof am Nehr (Chełmno nad Nerem) and Dachau. Those who have survived the war emigrated to Israel, the United States, France and Australia.